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[Pwn] how2pwn [CSAW CTF Qual 2022]

0x0 Introduction

how2pwn is a series of beginner-friendly pwn challenges to make pwning and shellcoding more approachable.


nc how2pwn.chal.csaw.io 60001

nc how2pwn.chal.csaw.io 60002

nc how2pwn.chal.csaw.io 60003

nc how2pwn.chal.csaw.io 60004

Files: public.zip

0x2 Vuln & Exploits

Each step have restriction in some way.

Each step require you to write a shellcode that print out the flag.


no restriction, just send a execve('/bin/sh') shellcode to get a shell and get the flag

exploit: exploit-1.py


only allow 0x10 bytes shellcode.

solution is pretty simple, since it calls read(0, buf, 0x10). And rsi hasn't change since that read call.

we can craft a shellcode that call read again and allow us to read more bytes into the memory.

Therefore, we got enough space for the get shell payload.

exploit: exploit-2.py


binary uses seccomp to block most of syscall. However, it doesn't block syscall in x86.

therefore, we can use retf return to x86 shellcode, use x86 shellcode to bypass the restriction and get the flag

use the hint you get from step2, you can craft the payload pretty easily

hint from step2

# context.terminal = ['tmux', 'splitw', '-h', '-F' '#{pane_pid}', '-P']
# 1. In this challenge, you can't open a file because of the strict sandbox
# 2. But there is a vul about the sanbox, it doesn't check the syscall arch.
# 3. We can use x86 syscalls to bypass it. All x86 syscalls: https://syscalls32.paolostivanin.com/
# 4. You may find x86 can't visite x64 address because x64 address is too long to be stored in the x86 register. However, we still have syscall_mmap, which could allocate a chunk of memory, for example 0xcafe000, so we can visite this address in x86 mode.
# 5. There is a demo for retf: https://github.com/n132/n132.github.io/blob/master/code/GoogleCTF/S2/XxX/pwn.S

exploit: exploit-3.py


a copied version of https://n132.github.io/2022/07/04/S2.html

The program have a sandbox that only allows __NR_seccomp __NR_fork __NR_ioctl __NR_exit

simple version of the solution

  1. create a listener using seccomp
  2. in the child process, listen to all the syscall. And change the syscall status from denied to allow whenever a syscall is called by user
  3. in the parent process, wait until child process started. ret to x86 and print out the flag using shellcode.

rewrite the exploit in exp.cc asm and get the shell

exploits: chal4struct.c (for getting the value that will be used in shellcode), exploit-4.py

0x4 Flag